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Screening and isolation of cyclooxygenase‐2 inhibitors from Trifolium pratense L. via ultrafiltration, enzyme‐immobilized magnetic beads, semi‐preparative high‐performance liquid chromatography and high‐speed counter‐current chromatography
- Hou, Wanchao, Li, Senlin, Li, Sainan, Shi, Dongfang, Liu, Chunming
- Journal of separation science 2019 v.42 no.6 pp. 1133-1143
- Trifolium pratense, apoptosis, bioactive compounds, biochanin A, carcinogenesis, cell proliferation, countercurrent chromatography, daidzein, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, enzyme inhibitors, formononetin, high performance liquid chromatography, magnetism, neoplasms, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, prostaglandin synthase, risk reduction, screening, tissues, ultrafiltration
- Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs reportedly reduce the risk of developing cancer. One mechanism by which they reduce carcinogenesis involves the inhibition of the activity of cyclooxygenase‐2, an enzyme that is overexpressed in various cancer tissues. Its overexpression increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. However, selected cyclooxygenase‐2 inhibitors can also act through cyclooxygenase‐independent mechanisms. In this study, using ultrafiltration, enzyme‐immobilized magnetic beads, high‐performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray‐ionization mass spectrometry, several isoflavonoids in Trifolium pratense L. extracts were screened and identified. Semi‐preparative high‐performance liquid chromatography and high‐speed counter‐current chromatography were then applied to separate the active constituents. Using these methods, seven major compounds were identified in Trifolium pratense L. As cyclooxygenase‐2 inhibitors: rothindin, ononin, daidzein, trifoside, pseudobaptigenin, formononetin, and biochanin A, which were then isolated with >92% purity. This is the first report of the presence of potent cyclooxygenase‐2 inhibitors in Trifolium pratense L. extracts. The results of this study demonstrate that the systematic isolation of bioactive components from Trifolium pratense L., by using ultrafiltration, enzyme‐immobilized magnetic beads, semi‐preparative high‐performance liquid chromatography, and high‐speed counter‐current chromatography, represents a feasible and efficient technique that could be extended for the identification and isolation of other enzyme inhibitors.