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Room temperature and sensitive determination of haloanisoles in wine using vacuum-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction
- Vakinti, Maria, Mela, Sofia-Maria, Fernández, Elena, Psillakis, Elefteria
- Journal of chromatography 2019 v.1602 pp. 142-149
- ambient temperature, bottled wines, chromatography, detection limit, ethanol, headspace analysis, red wines, solid phase microextraction, solubility
- Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) is a widespread technique used to extract trace amounts of haloanisoles from wine samples. A major challenge to overcome is the high ethanol content in wines that affects the solubilities of haloanisoles and reduces their headspace abundance. To overcome this obstacle and meet sensitivity requirements, reported HSSPME procedures typically suggest heating the wine samples and/or sampling for extended times. The present work proposes the use of vacuum-assisted HSSPME (Vac-HSSPME) to accelerate the extraction kinetics whilst sampling at room temperature. Although ethanol affected the physico-chemical properties of the target analytes, these changes were not sufficient to prevent the positive effect of vacuum on HSSPME sampling. To demonstrate the benefits of adopting the vacuum approach, Vac-HSSPME and regular HSSPME methods were independently optimized and the results were compared at all times. The effect of ethanol under each pressure condition was also discussed. Under the optimum conditions found, Vac-HSSPME sampling for 30 min at room temperature at 25 °C yielded lower detection limits (0.13 to 0.19 ng L−1) than those obtained with regular HSSPME sampling for 30 min at 55 °C (0.26 to 0.76 ng L−1). The proposed Vac-HSSPME method was successfully applied to quantify haloanisoles in bottled red wines and a discussion on the effect of wine volatiles was included. The standard addition method was used to minimize matrix effects. The increase in total pressure due to the presence of ethanol and other volatile wine components did not reduce the positive effect of vacuum on HSSPME. Nonetheless, in accordance to past HSSPME methods, the limits of detection and quantification were affected due to the noise level increase and analyte interaction with matrix. The proposed Vac-HSSPME procedure was applied to twelve bottled red wines and one sample was found positive on 2,4,6-trichloronanisole.