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Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in some industrial sites, Dakahlia District, Egypt

Elshamy, Maha M., Heikal, Yasmin M., Bonanomi, Giuliano
Chemosphere 2019 v.225 pp. 678-687
Amaranthus, Chenopodium murale, Echinochloa colona, Malva parviflora, Portulaca oleracea, agricultural land, bioaccumulation factor, copper, decontamination, habitats, heavy metals, industrial effluents, industrial sites, ions, iron, lead, manganese, molecular weight, phytoremediation, protein content, roots, shoots, soil, toxicity, zinc, Egypt
Phytoremediation is an economic process through exploitation of plants capacity to accumulate heavy metals in polluted habitats by their harvestable parts. In the present investigation, Portulaca oleracea was examined to estimate its role in the accumulation of Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II) ions and recognize its persistence against the industrial effluent toxicity from different farmlands located beside these regions (S1:S9) in Dakahlia district, Egypt. The most recorded associate plants were; Amaranthus viridus, Malva parviflora, Chenopodium murale and Echinochloa colonum, which have high potentiality of heavy metals (HM) accumulation. The phytoremediation efficiency (bioconcentration factor (BCF), bioaccumulation factor (BF), translocation factor (TF), enrichment coefficient of shoot (ECS) and element accumulation index (EAI)) of P. oleracea were calculated. Considering the results, S7 showed the highest BCF value for Cu(II), 7.40; Fe(III), 2.06; and Zn(II), 4.33, while Mn(II), 2.06 at S1 and Pb(II), 3.89 at S3. BF and TF values were less than unity 1.0 for most of the sites. However, ECS values showed small variations among the investigated HM at the nine sites. EAI values were higher in shoots out of all the sites except S2 > EAI of roots of the same sites. Also, there was positive correlation between the soil HM concentrations in most sites. Moreover, total protein was estimated quantitatively and qualitatively. The protein profile showed 16 bands of molecular weight ranged from 30.9 to 240.6 KDa. Finally, P. oleracea can be used for decontamination of soils with heavy metals due to the high ecological amplitude and phytoremediation characteristics.