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Organochlorine pesticides air monitoring near a historical lindane production site in Spain

Navarro, I., de la Torre, A., Sanz, P., Arjol, M.A., Fernández, J., Martínez, M.A.
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.670 pp. 1001-1007
HCH (pesticide), air, chlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, isomers, landfills, lindane, meteorological parameters, monitoring, persistent organic pollutants, remediation, soil, temperature, toxic substances, waste disposal, wastes, Spain
The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous chemicals, such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers can have significantly adverse environmental consequences and cause contamination in soil, water, and atmosphere systems. Approximately 115,000 t of HCH wastes were generated by INQUINOSA Factory located in Sabiñánigo (Aragón, Spain) from 1975 to 1992, and were mainly dumped at Bailín and Sardas landfills. Under the frame of the project plan approved by the Government of Aragón, remediation and containment measures were implemented at the derelict production facility and landfill sites. To protect and assess the local environment, the concentrations of HCH isomers, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in air were periodically monitored in the Sardas landfills and surroundings by passive sampling devices. The influence of meteorological parameters was evaluated, showing positive correlations between temperature and HCH and HCB concentrations. The highest HCH levels were detected in Sardas landfill and INQUINOSA Factory sites. PeCB values were statistically higher in Sardas landfill than in Sabiñánigo urban core, nevertheless, HCB concentrations were similar in both sampling points. Statistically positive correlations were found among HCH isomers in all sampling points, showing a major common source. The chlorobenzenes also correlated positively with each other. The α-/γ-HCH ratios were calculated (1.46 ± 1.25; mean ± S.D.), corroborating that concentrations detected were mainly originated from the historical production, storage and waste disposal of technical HCH.