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Nanovaccine based on a protein-delivering dendrimer for effective antigen cross-presentation and cancer immunotherapy

Xu, Jun, Wang, Hui, Xu, Ligeng, Chao, Yu, Wang, Chenya, Han, Xiao, Dong, Ziliang, Chang, Hong, Peng, Rui, Cheng, Yiyun, Liu, Zhuang
Biomaterials 2019 v.207 pp. 1-9
T-lymphocytes, adjuvants, antigens, cancer vaccines, dendrimers, dendritic cells, melanoma, models, neoplasm cells, ovalbumin, programmed cell death, vaccination
Cancer vaccines for prevention and treatment of tumors have attracted tremendous interests as a type of cancer immunotherapy strategy. A major challenge in achieving robust T-cell responses to destruct tumor cells after vaccination is the abilities of antigen cross-presentation for antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs). Herein, we demonstrate that a polyamidoamine dendrimer modified with guanidinobenzoic acid (DGBA) could serve as an effective protein carrier to enable delivery of protein antigen, thereby leading to effective antigen cross-presentation by DCs. With ovalbumin (OVA) as the model antigen and unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) as the adjuvant, a unique type of tumor vaccine is formulated. Importantly, such DGBA-OVA-CpG nanovaccine can induce robust antigen-specific cellular immunities and further demonstrates outstanding prophylactic efficacy against B16-OVA melanoma. More significantly, the nanovaccine shows excellent therapeutic effect to treat established B16-OVA melanoma when used in combination with the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. This study presents the great promises of employing rationally engineered cytosolic protein carriers for the development of tumor vaccines to achieve effective cancer immunotherapy.