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GSK3/shaggy-like kinase 1 ubiquitously regulates cell growth from Arabidopsis to Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

Wang, Taotao, Li, Qinzhen, Lou, Shuaitong, Yang, Yong, Peng, Lingfang, Lin, Zezhong, Hu, Qin, Ma, Liuyin
Plant science 2019 v.283 pp. 290-300
Arabidopsis, Phyllostachys edulis, bamboos, brassinosteroids, cell growth, culms, dwarfing, enzymes, gene expression regulation, gene overexpression, genetically modified plants, hypocotyls, mutants, petioles, phenotype, plant height, regulator genes, signal transduction
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is one of the fastest growing species with a maximum growth rate of 1 m/day. However, the regulator genes for this explosive growth phenomenon have not been functionally studied. Here, we found that Moso bamboo GSK3/shaggy-like kinase 1 (PeGSK1) acts as a negative regulator of cell growth. Over-expression of PeGSK1 in Arabidopsis showed significant growth arrest phenotypes, including dwarfism, small leaves, reduced cell length, and disturbed cell elongation of petiole. Furthermore, Overexpression of PeGSK1 fully inhibited the longer hypocotyl phenotype of Arabidopsis atgsk1 mutants. In addition, PeGSK1-overexpressing lines were resistant to exogenous BR treatment and PeGSK1 interacted with the brassinosteroid signal transduction key regulator BZR1. The BZR1-dependent cell growth genes were down-regulated in PeGSK1-overexpressing lines. These results indicated that PeGSK1 is functionally similar to AtGSK1 and inhibited cell growth via the brassinosteroid signaling pathway. Importantly, PeGSK1 also interacted with PeBZR1, and the expression pattern of PeGSK1 was negatively correlated with the internode elongation of bamboo, indicating that PeGSK1 is involved in the cell growth of bamboo. In summary, our results provide insight into the role of brassinosteroids in the rapid-growth of bamboo culms and identifying target genes for the genetic manipulation of plant height.