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Analysis of musts and wines by means of a bio-electronic tongue based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase using polypyrrole/gold nanoparticles as the electron mediator

Garcia-Hernandez, C., Garcia-Cabezon, C., Martin-Pedrosa, F., Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.
Food chemistry 2019 v.289 pp. 751-756
brix, electronic tongue, factor analysis, glucose oxidase, grapes, least squares, nanogold, polymers, polyphenols, principal component analysis, pyrroles, support vector machines, synergism, winemaking, wines
A bioelectronic tongue (bioET) based on combinations of enzymes (tyrosinase and glucose oxidase) and polypyrrole (Ppy) or polypyrrole/AuNP (Ppy/AuNP) composites was build up and applied to the analysis and discrimination of musts and wines. Voltammetric responses of the array of sensors demonstrated the effectiveness of polymers as electron mediators and the existence of favorable synergistic effects between Ppy and the AuNPs. Using Principal Component Analysis and Parallel Factor Analysis it was possible to discriminate musts according to the °Brix and TPI (Total Polyphenol Index), and wines according to the alcoholic degree and TPI. Partial Least Squares provided good correlations between the bioET output and traditional chemical parameters. Moreover, Support Vector Machines permitted to predict the TPI and the alcoholic degree of wines, from data provided by the bioET in the corresponding grapes. This result opens the possibility to predict wine characteristics from the beginning of the vinification process.