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Effect of cooking on aroma profiles of Chinese foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and correlation with sensory quality

Bi, Shuang, Wang, Aojidong, Wang, Yanping, Xu, Xinxing, Luo, Dongsheng, Shen, Qun, Wu, Jihong
Food chemistry 2019 v.289 pp. 680-692
Setaria italica, aldehydes, boiling, flavor, freeze drying, odor compounds, odors, pyrazines, roasting, sensory evaluation
The effects of roasting, boiling, and freeze-drying after boiling on volatile aroma compounds in three varieties of Chinese foxtail millet (Setaria italica), namely, Jingu 21, Fenghonggu and Dongfangliang were determined. During boiling significant (p < 0.05) increases in the contents of several unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and benzene derivatives were observed, unlike roasting that mainly increased in the contents of pyrazines. Freeze-drying after boiling decreased complexity of flavors, with a reduction in the contents of volatile compounds. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of ‘popcorn-like’ and ‘smoky’ odors was observed for roasted samples, whereas boiled and pre-boiled-freeze-dried samples were characterized by ‘boiled rice’ and ‘boiled potatoes’ odors, respectively. A correlation of odor-active profile data with descriptive sensory analysis clearly established the role of pyrazines such as 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine in contributing to the ‘popcorn-like’, ‘boiled beans’, and ‘smoky’ odors, whereas dienals such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were responsible for the ‘boiled rice’ aroma.