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Immunologic balance of regulatory T cell/T helper 17 responses in gastrointestinal infectious diseases: Role of miRNAs

Adibzadeh Sereshgi, Mohammad Mehdi, Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad, Mahdavi, Mehdi, Ranjbar, Reza, Ahmadi, Kazem, Taheri, Ramezan Ali, Fasihi-Ramandi, Mahdi
Microbial pathogenesis 2019 v.131 pp. 135-143
CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, adaptive immunity, bacteria, bacterial infections, gastrointestinal system, immune response, interleukin-17, microRNA
Gastrointestinal Infectious diseases (GIDs) are the second cause of death worldwide. T helper17 cells (Th17) play an important role in GIDs through production of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 cytokines. Because of their increased activities in GID, Th17 and its inflammatory cytokines can inhibit the progression and eliminate the infection. Actually, although Th17 have the best performance in the acute phase, regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are enhanced in the chronic phase and infection progress through its suppressive function. In addition, Treg cells prevent undesirable inflammatory damages developed by immune system components. On the other hand, miRNAs have important roles in the regulation of immune responses to eliminate bacterial infections and protect host organisms from harmful effects. Actually, miRNAs can reinforce innate and adaptive immunity to remove infections. Of note, miRNAs can develop a regulatory network with the immune system. Additionally, miRNAs can also serve in favor of bacteria to reduce immune responses. Therefore, balance of immune responses in Treg and Th17 cells can influence outcome of many infectious diseases. In conclusion, there is an imbalance in the Treg/Th17 ratio in GIDs; importantly, sets of miRNAs, particularly miR155 and miR146, were determined to be involved clearly in GIDs.