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Indian pulses: A review on nutritional, functional and biochemical properties with future perspectives

Venkidasamy, Baskar, Selvaraj, Dhivya, Nile, Arti Shivraj, Ramalingam, Sathishkumar, Kai, Guoyin, Nile, Shivraj Hariram
Trends in food science & technology 2019
Macrotyloma uniflorum, agricultural productivity, anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial peptides, antineoplastic activity, bioactive compounds, black gram, body weight, calcium, cardiovascular diseases, chickpeas, dietary fiber, energy requirements, enzyme inhibitors, flavonoids, folic acid, human health, human nutrition, iron, lectins, lentils, magnesium, meat, minerals, mung beans, niacin, nutrient databanks, nutritive value, oxalates, peas, phosphorus, phytosterols, potassium, protein content, protein requirement, riboflavin, risk reduction, saponins, staple foods, tannins, thiamin
Pulses are a very important part of a human diet providing all nutritional and physiologically beneficial effects on human health. Pulses are rich in protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fibre, and a rich source of other bioactive components, and their consumption extends worldwide. Pulses are dried legumes that consist of various varieties of beans, lentils, peas, green gram, black gram, horse gram, and chickpeas. Protein-rich pulses are considered a staple food for a large portion of the Indian population, which satisfies everyone’s protein and energy demands. Pulses are good sources of dietary fibre and are low in fat, which helps in the maintenance of body weight and reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, there are various potential health benefits due to the phytochemicals, such as phenolics, flavonoids, phytates, lectins, tannins, saponins, oxalates, enzyme inhibitors, phytosterols, and antimicrobial peptides, present in pulses. These phytochemicals have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and anti-ulcerative effects. In addition, pulses are also rich in vitamins [folate, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), and niacin (B3)] and minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron). Due to their high protein content and low cost, pulses are referred to as ‘poor people’s meat’. In this review, we discuss the chemical composition, nutritional value, phytochemical components, health benefits, availability, and agricultural productivity of pulses based on worldwide food composition databases. In addition, the present status and future prospects of pulses are also reviewed.