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Used cooking oils as potential oleochemical feedstock for urban biorefineries – Study case in Bogota, Colombia
- Rincón, Luz A., Cadavid, Juan G., Orjuela, Alvaro
- Waste management 2019 v.88 pp. 200-210
- acid value, biorefining, catering, chickens, color, cooking, cooking fats and oils, databases, fast food restaurants, feedstocks, iodine value, kitchen waste, lipids, markets, peroxide value, physicochemical properties, polar compounds, potassium hydroxide, saponification, value added, waste management, Colombia
- This work is focused on assessing the potential for the exploitation of used cooking oils (UCOs) as oleochemical feedstock for urban biorefineries. The study case was developed for the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Initially, and according to data from major fats and oils distributors, market information, and public databases, it was estimated that total annual generation of UCOs in Colombia is about 225,000 t, with a per capita of ca. 5 kg/person/yr. Correspondingly, UCOs generation in Bogotá was estimated in at least 45,000 t/yr., with a major generation occurring at Household and HORECA (Hotels, Restaurants and Catering) segments. Specifically in HORECA, fast food restaurants (in particular those of hamburger and chicken) were identified as the main UCOs generators with a suitable supply for industrial exploitation. Then, UCOs samples from this segment of restaurants were subjected to physicochemical characterization by determination of density, volatile matter content, acid value, color, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value, and content of total polar compounds. The properties associated with the degree of degradation of the oil showed a large variation, even among samples from the same origin. This heterogeneity indicates the need for a pre-treatment process before its reuse. Despite the heterogeneity of the samples, density, iodine value, and saponification value showed slight changes among the different restaurants, largely depending on the nature of the processed cooking oil rather than on the cooking conditions. The collected UCOs showed iodine values and saponification indexes ranging between 80 and 119 g I2/100 g, and 178–201 mg KOH/g, respectively. This indicates that after a suitable purification, UCOs could be used as raw material for a variety of high value oleochemicals. Finally, based upon market data, and to boost further studies, some promissory value-added derivatives are identified.