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Effect of Bacillus cereus against cadmium induced hematological disturbances and immunosuppression in Carassius auratus gibelio

Wang, Nan, Gao, Chunshan, Zhang, Peijun, Guan, Lili, Wang, Yunxiang, Qin, Yue, Li, Yuehong
Fish & shellfish immunology 2019 v.89 pp. 141-148
Bacillus cereus, Carassius gibelio, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood serum, cadmium, enzyme activity, erythrocyte count, erythrocytes, fish, heavy metals, hematocrit, hemoglobin, immune response, immunoglobulin M, immunosuppression, interleukin-10, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, probiotics, spleen, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Cadmium (Cd) is the most common heavy metal and is easily detected in aquatic environments worldwide. The genus Bacillus was one of dominant probiotics, which was commonly used in aquaculture. The present study was undertaken to explore the effects of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) supplementation on hematological parameters and the immune response of Carassius auratus gibelio (C. gibelio) following Cd exposure. Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (0, 1 and 2 mg/L) and/or treated with dietary B. cereus at 108 cfu/g for four weeks. The hematological disturbances observed after exposure of waterborne Cd included significant decreases in red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and hematocrit (HCT). While significant elevation (P < 0.05) of RBC count, HCT and Hb levels in the 1 and 2 mg/L Cd-B. cereus administration group at 4 weeks, compared with the Cd-only group. Among serum enzymatic activities, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities by Cd exposure were significantly higher than controls, but this increase was effectively inhibited in Cd-B. cereus administration groups. In the Cd-B. cereus administration group, significant down-regulation of Hsp70, Hsp90, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in conjunction with the up-regulation of IgM and LZM in the spleen indicated that B. cereus alleviated the Cd-induced damage to the immune system to some degree. The results of this study suggested that B. cereus has the potential to countermeasure Cd-induced hematological disturbances and immunosuppression in C. gibelio.