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Study of gut bacterial diversity of Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori through 16S rRNA gene sequencing

Kumar, Dhiraj, Sun, Zhenli, Cao, Guangli, Xue, Renyu, Hu, Xiaolong, Gong, Chengliang
Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2019 v.22 no.2 pp. 522-530
Bombyx mandarina, Bombyx mori, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Methanobrevibacter, Pseudomonas, bacteria, domestication, genes, insect larvae, instars, intestinal microorganisms, intestines, natural selection, rearing, ribosomal RNA, selection pressure, sequence analysis, stress tolerance
The wild silkworm B. mandarina is living in the natural environment has a strong stress resistance and adaptability after harsh natural selection. The indoor rearing or domestication of the wild silkworm under artificial custody for long period deteriorates stress resistance and ecological adaptability. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of artificial domestication and evolutionary pressure on the gut bacterial diversity of B. mandarina and B. mori. The intestinal content of 6th day of fifth instar B. mandarina and B. mori larvae were analyzed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene through Illumina miseq sequencing technology. The outcome of the study revealed that abundance of predominant bacteria of phylum Firmicutes were respectively 81.40% and 81.85% in the late fifth instar silkworm larvae (6th day) of B. mandarina and B. mori. In Firmicutes, abundance of predominant bacterial genus Enterococcus in B. mandarina (69.73%) was comparatively higher than B. mori (48.99%). The genus Advenella belongs to phylum Proteobacteria was recorded only in B. mandarina (11.54%). The abundance of Unclassified_Peptostreptococcaceae, Methanobrevibacter, Ignatzschineria, Petrimonas and Proteiniphilum in B. mandarina were between 0.12 and 0.17%, nevertheless, these bacterial genera were not detected in B. mori. The abundance of genera Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas in B. mori (17.73%, 5.02%, and 1.61%) were remarkably higher than B. mandarina (0.15%, 0.54% and 0.45%). These results indicated that substantial difference was observed between the intestinal bacteria of B. mori and B. mandarina population, and structure of the intestinal bacteria could be affected by the artificial domestication and evolutionary pressure.