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Procyanidin B2 rich cocoa extracts inhibit inflammation in Caco-2 cell model of in vitro celiac disease by down-regulating interferon-gamma- or gliadin peptide 31-43-induced transglutaminase-2 and interleukin-15
- Kramer, Kristen, Yeboah-Awudzi, Millicent, Magazine, Nicholas, King, Joan M., Xu, Zhimin, Losso, Jack N.
- Journal of functional foods 2019 v.57 pp. 112-120
- biomarkers, caffeine, celiac disease, cysteamine, gliadin, human cell lines, inflammation, interferon-gamma, interleukin-15, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, models, procyanidins, secretion, theobromine
- The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of procyanidin B2 rich cocoa extracts on interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) or gliadin peptide p31-43-induced transglutaminase-2 and interleukin-15 (IL-15) in Caco-2 cell model of in vitro celiac disease. Cysteamine was used as a positive control inhibitor of TG2. Procyanidin B2-rich extract reduced IFN-γ- and gliadin p31-43-induced TG2 activity by 77% and 45%, respectively. Cocoa extract containing 4.9–289 µg/mL of procyanidin B2 dose-dependently reduced IFN-γ-induced IL-15 secretion to the level of IL-15 in control cells. Similarly, cocoa extract containing 4.9–289 µg/mL of procyanidin B2 dose-dependently reduced gliadin p31-43-induced IL-15 to the level in control cells. Procyanidin B2-rich cocoa extracts reduced the activities of other inflammatory biomarkers including COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in both IFN-γ and p31-43-treated Caco-2 cells. Caffeine or theobromine, at the concentration found in the cocoa extracts, did not contribute to the activity of procyanidin B2 against TG2 or IL-15.