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Monitoring indole alkaloid production by Penicillium digitatum during infection process in citrus by Mass Spectrometry Imaging and molecular networking

Costa, Jonas Henrique, Bazioli, Jaqueline Moraes, de Vilhena Araújo, Eder, Vendramini, Pedro Henrique, de Freitas Porto, Mariana Cristina, Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira, Souza-Neto, Jayme A., Fill, Taícia Pacheco
Fungal biology 2019 v.123 no.8 pp. 594-600
Aedes aegypti, Citrus, Penicillium digitatum, bioassays, biological control, fruits, hosts, image analysis, indole alkaloids, insecticidal properties, mass spectrometry, monitoring, plant pathogenic fungi, postharvest diseases, secondary metabolites, toxicity
Green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, is the most destructive post-harvest disease in citrus. Secondary metabolites produced by fungal phytopathogens have been associated with toxicity to their respective host through the interaction with a wide range of cell targets. Natural products have also been described as important molecules for biocontrol and competition in their respective environment. For P. digitatum, the production of indole alkaloids, tryptoquialanines A and B, have been reported. However, their biological role remains unknown. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) technique was applied here for the first time to monitor the secondary metabolites produced on the orange surface during infection in order to gain insights about the P. digitatum-citrus interaction mechanisms. Through the combination of MSI and molecular networking it was possible to report, for the first time, the production of tryptoquivalines and fumiquinazolines by P. digitatum and also the accumulation of tryptoquialanines on the fruit surface from 4 to 7 d post inoculation. P. digitatum was also evaluated concerning the ability to sinthesize indole alkaloids in vivo in the different citrus hosts. The biological role of tryptoquialanines was investigated and tryptoquialanine A was submitted to insecticidal bioassays that revealed its high toxicity against Aedes Aegypti, suggesting an important insecticidal action during orange decay.