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Analyzing both the fast and the slow phases of chlorophyll a fluorescence and P700 absorbance changes in dark-adapted and preilluminated pea leaves using a Thylakoid Membrane model

Belyaeva, N. E., Bulychev, A. A., Riznichenko, G. Yu., Rubin, A. B.
Photosynthesis research 2019 v.140 no.1 pp. 1-19
absorbance, acidification, chlorophyll, dark adaptation, electron transfer, fluorescence, heat, leaves, light harvesting complex, lighting, models, pH, peas, photosystem II, quinones, thylakoids
The dark-to-light transitions enable energization of the thylakoid membrane (TM), which is reflected in fast and slow (OJIPSMT or OABCDE) stages of fluorescence induction (FI) and P700 oxidoreduction changes (ΔA₈₁₀). A Thylakoid Membrane model (T-M model), in which special emphasis has been placed on ferredoxin-NADP⁺-oxidoreductase (FNR) activation and energy-dependent qE quenching, was applied for quantifying the kinetics of FI and ΔA₈₁₀. Pea leaves were kept in darkness for 15 min and then the FI and ΔA₈₁₀ signals were measured upon actinic illumination, applied either directly or after a 10-s light pulse coupled with a subsequent 10-s dark interval. On the time scale from 40 µs to 30 s, the parallel T-M model fittings to both FI and ΔA₈₁₀ signals were obtained. The parameters of FNR activation and the buildup of qE quenching were found to differ for dark-adapted and preilluminated leaves. At the onset of actinic light, photosystem II (PSII) acceptors were oxidized (neutral) after dark adaptation, while the redox states with closed and/or semiquinone QA⁽⁻⁾QB⁽⁻⁾ forms were supposedly generated after preillumination, and did not relax within the 10 s dark interval. In qE simulations, a pH-dependent Hill relationship was used. The rate constant of heat losses in PSII antenna kD(t) was found to increase from the basic value kDcₒₙₛₜ, at the onset of illumination, to its maximal level kDᵥₐᵣ due to lumenal acidification. In dark-adapted leaves, a low value of kDcₒₙₛₜ of ∼ 2 × 10⁶ s⁻¹ was found. Simulations on the microsecond to 30 s time scale revealed that the slow P-S-M-T phases of the fluorescence induction were sensitive to light-induced FNR activation and high-energy qE quenching. Thus, the corresponding time-dependent rate constants kD(t) and kFNR(t) change substantially upon the release of electron transport on the acceptor side of PSI and during the NPQ development. The transitions between the cyclic and linear electron transport modes have also been quantified in this paper.