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Comparative genomics of 40 edible and medicinal mushrooms provide an insight into the evolution of lignocellulose decomposition mechanisms

An, Qi, Wu, Xue-Jun, Dai, Yu-Cheng
3 Biotech 2019 v.9 no.4 pp. 157
brown-rot fungi, cytochrome P-450, ecotypes, enzymes, genes, genomics, lignocellulose, medicinal fungi, phylogeny, saprotrophs
Diversity comparison and phylogenetic analyses of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), auxiliary activities (AAs) and cytochromes P450 among 40 fungi, which are based on different nutritional pathways, help clarify and explain their divergence and improvement of various life-styles. Molecular clock analyses allow us to understand the evolutionary and developmental rules in decomposition gene families. Our results suggested that fungi in different ecological types acquired an obvious preference on specific decomposing gene families during evolutionary selection. White rot and litter saprotrophic fungi possessed more complete types of varied degradation gene families and were superior in quantities. With evolution and development of lignocellulose decomposition mechanism, certain families (like CBM1, GH6, GH7, GH10, and CYP53) disappeared in brown rot fungi and symbiotic fungi. In addition, the earlier time of phylogenetic divergence determined the more integrated and larger decomposition families. And various gains and losses in gene quantity of varied decomposition families led in particularly phylogenetic clades or nodes, then accelerated in forming varied ecotypes of species.