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Persistence of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome arm 1RS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs of the Great Plains of North America

Graybosch, Robert, Bai, Guihua, Amand, Paul St., Sarath, Gautam
Genetic resources and crop evolution 2019 v.66 no.4 pp. 941-950
Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, breadmaking quality, breeding lines, breeding programs, chromosome translocation, cultivars, genes, genetic markers, grain yield, rye, storage proteins, stress tolerance, wheat, Great Plains region, North America
Rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome arm 1RS has been used world-wide by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs as a source of pest- and pathogen-resistance genes, and to improve grain yield and stress tolerance. The most common vehicles used to access 1RS are various 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. Over the past 25 years, advanced North American wheat breeding lines were evaluated, first by assay of secalin storage proteins, and later by use of DNA marker TSM0120, for the presence of these two translocations. Both methods provide accurate and efficient means of identifying and differentiating 1BL.1RS and 1A.1RS. Both 1Al.1RS and 1BL.1RS wheats were found in all tested years. 1AL.1RS lines were more common in southern Great Plains breeding programs. 1AL.1RS lines were released as cultivars at a frequency identical to that of wild-type breeding lines. In contrast, 1BL.1RS breeding lines were developed by breeding programs throughout the Great Plains, but fewer were released as cultivars. Both 1RS translocation types persist in Great Plains breeding programs. The lower rate of release of 1BL.1RS cultivars no doubt is a consequence of the more drastic effects on breadmaking quality relative to those observed with 1AL.1RS.