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The Role of Lignocellulosic Composition and Residual Lipids in Empty Fruit Bunches on the Production of Humic Acids in Submerged Fermentations

Volpi, MPC, Santos, VS, Ribeiro, APB, Santana, MHA, Bastos, RG
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2019 v.187 no.3 pp. 957-964
Trichoderma reesei, fatty acid composition, fruits, fungal growth, humic acids, lignocellulose, lipids, palm kernel oil, raw fruit, soil, spores, submerged fermentation
The aim of this research was to study the production of humic acids (HA) by Trichoderma reesei from empty fruit bunches (EFBs) of palm oil processing, with a focus on the effects of lignocellulosic content and residual lipids. EFBs from two different soils and palm oil producers were previously characterized about their lignocellulosic composition. Submerged fermentations were inoculated with T. reesei spores and set up with or without residual lipids. The results showed that the soil and the processing for removal of the palm fresh fruits were crucial to EFB quality. Thus, EFBs were classified as type 1 (higher lignocellulosic and fatty acids composition similar to the palm oil and palm kernel oil) and type 2 (lower lignocellulosic content and fatty acids composition similar to palm oil). Despite the different profiles, the fungal growth was similar for both EFB types. HA production was associated with fungal growth, and it was higher without lipids for both EFBs. The highest HA productivity was obtained from type 1 EFB (approximately 90 mg L⁻¹ at 48 h). Therefore, the lignocellulosic composition and the nature of the residual lipids in EFBs play an important role in HA production by submerged fermentation.