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A Comparison Between Full-COLD PCR/HRM and PCR Sequencing for Detection of Mutations in Exon 9 of PIK3CA in Breast Cancer Patients

Ghalamkari, Safoura, Khosravian, Farinaz, Mianesaz, Hamidreza, Kazemi, Mohammad, Behjati, Mohaddeseh, Hakimian, Sayyed Mohammadreza, Salehi, Mansoor
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2019 v.187 no.3 pp. 975-983
DNA, breast neoplasms, carcinogenesis, cell lines, cost effectiveness, denaturation, exons, melting, mutants, patients, polymerase chain reaction, screening, sequence analysis, somatic mutation, temperature
One of the most common somatic mutations in breast cancer is found in PIK3CA with a prevalence rate of 18–45%. Different variants of this gene are considered as resistance markers for treatment with HER2-targeted medicines. Conventional molecular methods such as Sanger sequencing are not able to detect mutations with low abundance in a mixture of wild-type DNA, especially in the early stages of cancer development. In this study, two methods of co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR (COLD-PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) were combined for detection of mutations in exon 9 of PIK3CA; DNA, therefore, was extracted from MCF-7 and BT-474 as mutant and wild-type cell lines respectively. Thereafter, serial dilutions of extracted DNA were used to determine sensitivity of full-COLD PCR/HRM in comparison with conventional PCR sequencing as the gold standard method. Cell line experiments resulted in almost 30 fold increase in sensitivity by use of full-COLD PCR/HRM. In addition, 40 patients with primary breast cancer were investigated with the mentioned methods. As a result of this part of study, four mutations were detected by conventional PCR sequencing including E542K and E545K mutations in three and one samples respectively. Whereas, full-COLD PCR/HRM was able to detect one E542K mutation more than gold standard method which caused the percentage of sensitivity to get improved by 2.5% (10 to 12.5%). Our results clearly demonstrated that full-COLD PCR/HRM could detect lower levels of mutations in wild-type background as a sensitive method with simple and cost-effective procedure; therefore, it can prospectively be used in screening of patients with early-stage breast cancers.