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Macrophomina phaseolina: microbased biorefinery for gold nanoparticle production

Sreedharan, Smitha Mony, Gupta, Sonali, Saxena, Anil Kumar, Singh, Rajni
Annals of microbiology 2019 v.69 no.4 pp. 435-445
Escherichia coli, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Macrophomina phaseolina, adverse effects, biofabrication, biorefining, biosynthesis, drug delivery systems, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, fungi, light scattering, nanobiotechnology, nanogold, nanoparticles, pH, temperature, toxic substances, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, viability, viability assays
Biofabrication of nanoparticles via the principles of green nanotechnology is a key issue addressed in nanobiotechnology research. There is a growing need for development of a synthesis method for producing biocompatible stable nanoparticles in order to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. We report the use of simple and rapid biosynthesis method for the preparation of gold nanoparticles using Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, a soil-borne pathogen. The effect of pH and temperature on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by M. phaseolina was also assessed. Different techniques like UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and EDX were used to characterize the gold nanoparticles. The movement of these gold nanoparticles inside Escherichia coli (ATCC11103) along with effect on growth and viability was evaluated. The biogenic gold nanoparticle was synthesized at 37 °C temperature and neutral pH. UV-Visible Spectroscopy, TEM, EDX, and DLS measurements confirm the formation of 14 to 16 nm biogenic gold nanoparticles. FTIR substantiates the presence of protein capping on Macrophomina phaseolina-mediated gold nanoparticles. The non-toxicity of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by the growth and viability assay while the TEM images validated the entry of gold nanoparticles without disrupting the structural integrity of E. coli. Biogenic method for the synthesis of nanoparticles using fungi is novel, efficient, without toxic chemicals. These biogenic gold nanoparticles themselves are nontoxic to the microbial cells and offer a better substitute for drug delivery system.