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Soil nutrients status affected by simple and enriched biochar application under salinity conditions
- Moradi, Salahedin, Rasouli-Sadaghiani, Mir Hassan, Sepehr, Ebrahim, Khodaverdiloo, Habib, Barin, Mohsen
- Environmental monitoring and assessment 2019 v.191 no.4 pp. 257
- absorption, biochar, calcium, containers, copper, cow manure, electrical conductivity, field capacity, grapes, iron, magnesium, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, polyethylene, potassium, pruning, rock phosphate, saline soils, salinity, sodium, soil nutrients, soil pH, total nitrogen, zinc
- In order to study the effect of biochar application as simple and enriched, on the soil nutrients status in the salinity conditions, a research was conducted as a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The biochar (grape pruning residues) was applied in three levels (0, 2% biochar, and 2% enriched biochar by rock phosphate and cow manure). Also, the salinity treatment was considered in three levels (2, 4.5, and 9 dSm⁻¹). After treating the soil, it was incubated in polyethylene containers for a 70-day period at 25 °C and 70% field capacity moisture regime. The results showed that salinity significantly affected the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium, magnesium, sodium, basal respiration, and nitrifying bacteria frequency (P < 0.001) and chloride concentration (P < 0.01). Also, the biochar significantly affected the pH, organic carbon, concentration of total nitrogen, phosphorous, solution potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, basal respiration, and nitrifying bacteria frequency (P < 0.001) of the soil. The interaction effect of biochar and salinity levels was significant on soil sodium concentration (P < 0.01) and pH (P < 0.05). In comparison with the control treatment, the enriched biochar, decreased soil pH (about 1.4%) and increased the phosphorous, iron, and zinc up to 36%, 29%, and 36%, respectively and simple biochar increased the Nitrogen and Potassium up to 46% and 48%, respectively. In general, it was concluded that both types of the biochars lowered the sodium concentration of the soil in different salinity levels due to high potential of biochar for sodium absorption which this ability may be considered in saline soils remediation.