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Antibody profiling using a recombinant protein–based multiplex ELISA array accelerates recombinant vaccine development: Case study on red sea bream iridovirus as a reverse vaccinology model

Tomomasa Matsuyama, Natsumi Sano, Tomokazu Takano, Takamitsu Sakai, Motoshige Yasuike, Atushi Fujiwara, Yasuhiko Kawato, Jun Kurita, Kazunori Yoshida, Yukinori Shimada, Chihaya Nakayasu
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.19 pp. 2643-2649
Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, Seriola dumerili, Seriola quinqueradiata, antibodies, antigens, blood serum, case studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fish, genes, immune response, models, pathogens, prediction, protective effect, recombinant vaccines, screening, sorbents, vaccine development
Predicting antigens that would be protective is crucial for the development of recombinant vaccine using genome based vaccine development, also known as reverse vaccinology. High-throughput antigen screening is effective for identifying vaccine target genes, particularly for pathogens for which minimal antigenicity data exist. Using red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) as a research model, we developed enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) based RSIV-derived 72 recombinant antigen array to profile antiviral antibody responses in convalescent Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata). Two and three genes for which the products were unrecognized and recognized, respectively, by antibodies in convalescent serum were selected for recombinant vaccine preparation, and the protective effect was examined in infection tests using Japanese amberjack and greater amberjack (S. dumerili). No protection was provided by vaccines prepared from gene products unrecognized by convalescent serum antibodies. By contrast, two vaccines prepared from gene products recognized by serum antibodies induced protective immunity in both fish species. These results indicate that ELISA array screening is effective for identifying antigens that induce protective immune responses. As this method does not require culturing of pathogens, it is also suitable for identifying protective antigens to un-culturable etiologic agents.