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Perovskite precursor solution chemistry: from fundamentals to photovoltaic applications

Jung, Minsu, Ji, Sang-Geun, Kim, Gwisu, Seok, Sang Il
Chemical Society reviews 2019 v.48 no.7 pp. 2011-2038
Ostwald ripening, chemistry, models, solar cells, solvents
Over the last several years, inorganic–organic hybrid perovskites have shown dramatic achievements in photovoltaic performance and device stability. Despite the significant progress in photovoltaic application, an in-depth understanding of the fundamentals of precursor solution chemistry is still lacking. In this review, the fundamental background knowledge of nucleation and crystal growth processes in solution including the LaMer model and Ostwald ripening process is described. This review article also highlights the recent progress in precursor-coordinating molecule interaction in solution along with the role of anti-solvent in the solvent engineering process to control nucleation and crystal growth. Moreover, chemical pathways from precursor solution to perovskite film formation are given. This represents identification of the intermediate phase induced by precursor-coordinating molecule interaction and responsible intermediate species for uniform and dense perovskite film formation. Further to the description of chemical phenomena in solution, the contemporary progress in chemical precursor composition is also provided to comprehend the current research approaches to further enhance photovoltaic performance and device stability. On the basis of the critical and comprehensive review, we provide some perspectives to further achieve high-performance perovskite solar cells with long-term device stability through precisely controlled nucleation and crystal growth in precursor solution.