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The Effects of Probiotic Formulation Pretreatment (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) on a Lipopolysaccharide Rat Model

Mohammadi, Ghazaleh, Dargahi, Leila, Peymani, Amir, Mirzanejad, Yazdan, Alizadeh, Safar Ali, Naserpour, Taghi, Nassiri-Asl, Marjan
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2019 v.38 no.3 pp. 209-217
Alzheimer disease, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus helveticus, animal models, cytokines, intestinal microorganisms, lipopolysaccharides, maltodextrins, neurodegenerative diseases, pathogenesis, placebos, probiotics, rats, therapeutics
Objective: The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), via the gut–brain axis has recently been demonstrated; hence, modification of the intestinal microbiota composition by probiotic biotherapy could be a therapeutic target for these conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) on inflammatory and memory processes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rats, one of the animal models used in peripherally induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, LPS, Probiotic + LPS, and Probiotic). All experimental groups were orally administrated maltodextrin (placebo) or probiotic (10⁹ CFU/ml/rat) for 14 consecutive days and then were injected with saline or LPS (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.], single dose) 20 hours later. Memory retention ability and systemic and neuroinflammatory markers were assessed 4 hours after the injections. Results: Systemic exposure to LPS resulted in significant elevation of both the circulating and hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines, which decreased remarkably following probiotic pretreatment. Oral bacteriotherapy with a combination of L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 also attenuated the decremental effect of LPS on memory through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression at the molecular level; however, this effect was not significant in the passive avoidance test at the behavioral level. Conclusions: These results suggest that the management of gut microbiota with this probiotic formulation could be a promising intervention to improve neuroinflammation-associated disorders such as AD.