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Chemical composition, antifungal activity and potential anti-virulence evaluation of the Eugenia uniflora essential oil against Candida spp.

dos Santos, Joycy Francely Sampaio, Rocha, Janaína Esmeraldo, Bezerra, Camila Fonseca, do Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna, de Matos, Yedda Maria Lobo Soares, de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio, dos Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas, da Cruz, Rafael Pereira, Machado, Antonio Júdson Targino, Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares, de Brito, Edy Sousa, Sales, Dédora Lima, de Oliveira Almeida, Waltécio, da Costa, José Galberto Martins, Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo, Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra
Food chemistry 2018 v.261 pp. 233-239
Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Eugenia uniflora, antagonism, antifungal properties, biochemical pathways, chemical analysis, chemical composition, essential oils, fluconazole, fungi, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hydrodistillation, inhibitory concentration 50, minimum inhibitory concentration, oils, viability, virulence
The development of fungal resistance to antifungal drugs has been worsening over the years and as a result research on new antifungal agents derived from plants has intensified. Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga) has been studied for its various biological actions. In this study the chemical composition and antifungal effects of the E. uniflora essential oil (EULEO) were investigated against Candida albicans (CA), Candida krusei (CK) and Candida tropicalis (CT) standard strains. The essential oil obtained through hydro-distillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To determine the IC50 of the oil, the cellular viability curve and the inhibitory effects were measured by means of the oil’s association with Fluconazole in a broth microdilution assay with spectrophotometric readings. The Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined by solid medium subculture with the aid of a guide plate while the assays used to verify morphological changes emerging from the action of the fractions were performed in microculture chambers at concentrations based on the microdilution. Two major oil constituents stand out from the chemical analysis: selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (36.37%) and selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one epoxide (27.32%). The concentration that reduced microorganismal growth was ≥8,192 μg/mL while the IC50 varied, this being between 1892.47 and 12491.80 μg/mL (oil), 10.07 – 80.78 μg/mL (fluconazole) and 18.53 – 295.60 μg/mL (fluconazole + oil). The combined activity (fluconazole + oil) resulted in indifference and antagonism. A MFC of the oil in association with fluconazole was recorded at the concentration of 8,192 μg/mL against CA and CK. The oil caused the inhibition of CA and CT morphological transition. In view of the results obtained, additional research is needed to elucidate the activity of the E. uniflora oil over genetic and biochemical processes regarding its effect on Candida spp. virulence.