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Gypenosides as natural emulsifiers for oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with astaxanthin: Insights of formulation, stability and release properties

Chen, Zhang, Shu, Gaofeng, Taarji, Noamane, Barrow, Colin J., Nakajima, Mitsutoshi, Khalid, Nauman, Neves, Marcos A.
Food chemistry 2018 v.261 pp. 322-328
astaxanthin, bioavailability, calcium chloride, droplets, emulsifiers, food industry, heat treatment, homogenization, ionic strength, lipid metabolism, nanoemulsions, pH, polysorbates, storage time
The formulation, physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin (AST) loaded oil-in-water nanoemulsions fabricated using gypenosides (GPs) as natural emulsifiers was investigated and compared with a synthetic emulsifier (Tween 20) that is commonly applied in food industry. GPs were capable of producing nanoemulsions with a small volume mean diameter (d4,3 = 125 ± 2 nm), which was similar to those prepared using Tween 20 (d4,3 = 145 ± 6 nm) under the same high-pressure homogenization conditions. GPs-stabilized nanoemulsions were stable against droplet growth over a range of pH (6–8) and thermal treatments (60–120 °C). Conversely, instability occurred under acidic (pH 3–5) and high ionic strength (25–100 mM CaCl2) conditions. In comparison with Tween 20, GPs were more effective at inhibiting AST from degradation during 30 days of storage at both 5 and 25 °C. However, GPs led to lower lipid digestion and AST bioaccessibility from nanoemulsions than did Tween 20.