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Effect of canola meal inclusion as a major protein source in gestation and lactation sow diets with or without enzymes on reproductive performance, milk composition, fecal bacterial profile and nutrient digestibility

Velayudhan, D.E., Hossain, M.M., Regassa, A., Nyachoti, C.M.
Animal feed science and technology 2018 v.241 pp. 141-150
Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, backfat, blood, body weight, canola meal, digestibility, digestible energy, digestive system, energy, enzymes, estrus, experimental diets, fat thickness, feces, feed intake, lactation, lactic acid bacteria, lactose, milk, milk fat, nutrients, phosphorus, piglets, pregnancy, protein sources, reproductive performance, sows, suckling, urea nitrogen, weaning
The aim was to determine the effects of high canola meal (CM) inclusion in gestation and lactation diets on reproductive performance, milk composition, fecal bacterial profile and nutrient and energy digestibility of sows. Forty-five sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments consisting of a corn-soybean meal control diet, control diet containing 300 g/kg solvent-extracted CM with or without multi-enzyme complex (MC). Sows were individually housed and offered the experimental diets from day 60 of gestation until weaning on day 21. Sows were weighed and backfat thickness measured on days 60 and 111 of gestation, and on days 0 and 21 post-farrowing. Litters were weighed on days 0 and 21. Weaning to estrus interval in sows was recorded. Blood and milk samples were collected 2 h post-feeding from sows on days 0 and 21 to determine the plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) content and milk composition. Fecal samples were collected from sows during lactation to determine energy and nutrient digestibility, and during gestation and lactation to determine the fecal bacterial profile. There were no dietary effects on lactation feed intake, sow backfat loss, weaning to estrus interval and milk fat, protein and lactose composition, and suckling piglet performance except for sow body weight (BW) loss during lactation, wherein sows fed CM-containing diets with MC had lower (P < 0.05) BW loss than those fed the control diet. Sows fed diets containing CM (with and without MC) had lower (P < 0.05) PUN values compared with those fed the control diet on day 21 post-farrowing. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients showed no dietary effect except for ATTD of phosphorus (P), wherein sows fed CM-containing diets with MC showed higher (P < 0.05) P digestibility compared to those fed CM-containing diets without MC. Sows fed CM-containing diets with or without MC had greater (P < 0.05) abundances of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus and lower (P < 0.05) abundances of Firmicutes when compared to those fed the control diet on day 90 of gestation. In conclusion, inclusion of up to 300 g/kg CM in gestation and lactation diet can support satisfactory sow and suckling piglet performance without affecting energy and nutrient digestibility, along with an increase in the abundance of gut lactic acid bacteria in sows. Moreover, enzyme supplementation reduced the sow BW loss and improved P digestibility in CM diets.