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Invertebrate troponin: Insights into the evolution and regulation of striated muscle contraction

Cao, Tianxin, Thongam, Urvashi, Jin, Jian-Ping
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2019 v.666 pp. 40-45
calcium signaling, calmodulin, coevolution, invertebrates, muscle contraction, muscle strength, muscles, protein subunits, regulatory proteins, striated muscle, structure-activity relationships, vertebrates
The troponin complex plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of striated muscles. Among the three protein subunits of troponin, the calcium receptor subunit, TnC, belongs to the calmodulin family of calcium signaling proteins whereas the inhibitory subunit, TnI, and tropomyosin-binding/thin filament-anchoring subunit, TnT, are striated muscle-specific regulatory proteins. TnI and TnT emerged early in bilateral symmetric invertebrate animals and have co-evolved during the 500–700 million years of muscle evolution. To understand the divergence as well as conservation of the structures of TnI and TnT in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms adds novel insights into the structure-function relationship of troponin and the muscle type isoforms of TnI and TnT. Based on the significant growth of genomic database of multiple species in the past decade, this focused review studied the primary structure features of invertebrate troponin subunits in comparisons with the vertebrate counterparts. The evolutionary data demonstrate valuable information for a better understanding of the thin filament regulation of striated muscle contractility in health and diseases.