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Trim33 is required for appropriate development of pre-cardiogenic mesoderm

Rajderkar, Sudha, Mann, Jeffrey M., Panaretos, Christopher, Yumoto, Kenji, Li, Hong-Dong, Mishina, Yuji, Ralston, Benjamin, Kaartinen, Vesa
Developmental biology 2019 v.450 no.2 pp. 101-114
abnormal development, antibodies, binding sites, cell proliferation, chromatin, congenital abnormalities, gastrulation, genes, heart failure, humans, mesoderm, mutants, myocardium, phenotype, pregnancy, stem cells, transcription (genetics), transcription factors
Congenital cardiac malformations are among the most common birth defects in humans. Here we show that Trim33, a member of the Tif1 subfamily of tripartite domain containing transcriptional cofactors, is required for appropriate differentiation of the pre-cardiogenic mesoderm during a narrow time window in late gastrulation. While mesoderm-specific Trim33 mutants did not display noticeable phenotypes, epiblast-specific Trim33 mutant embryos developed ventricular septal defects, showed sparse trabeculation and abnormally thin compact myocardium, and died as a result of cardiac failure during late gestation. Differentiating embryoid bodies deficient in Trim33 showed an enrichment of gene sets associated with cardiac differentiation and contractility, while the total number of cardiac precursor cells was reduced. Concordantly, cardiac progenitor cell proliferation was reduced in Trim33-deficient embryos. ChIP-Seq performed using antibodies against Trim33 in differentiating embryoid bodies revealed more than 4000 peaks, which were significantly enriched close to genes implicated in stem cell maintenance and mesoderm development. Nearly half of the Trim33 peaks overlapped with binding sites of the Ctcf insulator protein. Our results suggest that Trim33 is required for appropriate differentiation of precardiogenic mesoderm during late gastrulation and that it will likely mediate some of its functions via multi-protein complexes, many of which include the chromatin architectural and insulator protein Ctcf.