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A simple sensing of hazardous photo-induced superoxide anion radicals using a molecular probe in ZnO-Nanoparticles aqueous medium
- Agbe, Henry, Raza, Nadeem, Dodoo-Arhin, David, Kumar, R. Vasant, Kim, Ki-Hyun
- Environmental research 2019 v.176 pp. 108424
- aqueous solutions, colorimetry, irradiation, nanoparticles, oxygen, particle size, photocatalysis, photolysis, product safety, reactive oxygen species, sunscreens, tetrazolium, zeta potential, zinc oxide
- The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the photolysis of sunscreens and sun blockers poses consumer safety concerns while necessitating proper identification and quantitation of ROS species. Here, a colorimetric sensing approach has been developed based on a molecular probe (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2-H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) tetrazolium salt) to quantitatively measure the photo-induced superoxide anion radicals (O2.) generated from the photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in aqueous solutions. Note that superoxide anion radicals are assumed to be the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from such photocatalysis. The characterisation of ZnO-NPs before and after irradiation showed average particle sizes of 616.5 and 295.3 nm and ζ-potential values of 0 and -24.4 mV, respectively. It is hoped that this proposed protocol can be further developed to efficiently detect other ROS present in inorganic sun blockers and to optimize the utility of various sunscreen formulations.