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Urinary metabolites of phthalates and di-iso-nonyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH)–Czech mothers' and newborns' exposure biomarkers

Urbancova, Katerina, Lankova, Darina, Sram, Radim J., Hajslova, Jana, Pulkrabova, Jana
Environmental research 2019 v.173 pp. 342-348
biomarkers, children, environmental monitoring, enzymatic hydrolysis, high performance liquid chromatography, humans, metabolites, methanol, mothers, neonates, phthalates, phthalic acid, tandem mass spectrometry, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, urinalysis, urine, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Sweden
To assess human exposure to hazardous diesters of phthalic acid and their substitute di-iso-nonyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), concentrations of their metabolites in urine should be determined. For the purpose of this biomonitoring study, a quick and easy sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalate and four DINCH metabolites in urine has been implemented and validated. Following the enzymatic hydrolysis and dilution with methanol, the sample is ready for the analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The limits of quantification of this method ranged from 0.15 to 0.4 ng/mL urine with recoveries of 60–126% and repeatability in the range of 1–11%. The validated method was subsequently used for the analysis of urine samples collected from mothers and their newborn children living in two localities of the Czech Republic (Karvina and Ceske Budejovice, 2013–2014). Median concentrations of all measured metabolites (∑metabolites) were slightly lower in the urine samples collected from children (77.7 ng/mL urine) compared to their mothers (115.3 ng/mL urine), but no correlation was found between the concentrations of target compounds in children's and mothers' urine samples. The analyte with the highest concentration was monobutyl phthalate (MBP), with the median concentration of 32.1 ng/mL urine in the urine samples collected from mothers and 17.2 ng/mL urine in the samples collected from their children. This compound was also found in almost all of the measured samples. On the other hand, mono-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (MINCH) was not found in any urine sample. The most contaminated samples were collected from children living in the Karvina locality (median ∑metabolites 103.2 ng/mL urine), where the mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (cx-MEHP) compound contributed 43% to the total content of phthalate metabolites in newborns' urine. The results from our study are comparable with concentrations of the target compounds from Norway and Germany and lower compared to the results concluded in Sweden.