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Effect of anticaking agents on hardening and Maillard-induced protein aggregation in high-protein nutrition bars formulated with whey protein concentrate

Meng, Xianghe, Ji, Jian, Qi, Xie, Nie, Xiaohua
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.108 pp. 261-267
hardness, high protein foods, microstructure, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silica, storage temperature, tricalcium phosphate, whey protein concentrate
Hardening is a common problem of high-protein nutrition bars during storage, causing the products to be unacceptable for consumers. The object of this study was to prepare high-protein nutrition bars formulated with whey protein concentrate (WPC), and evaluate the effect of anticaking agents (SiO2 and Ca3(PO4)2) on their hardness, microstructure and Maillard-induced protein aggregation over storage at 37 °C. The increment in hardness of WPC bars was obviously slowed by SiO2 and Ca3(PO4)2, especially the former; along with an apparent dispersive microstructure in CSLM image. The addition of SiO2 and Ca3(PO4)2 inhibited the progress of Maillard reactions in WPC bars, evidenced by limited changes in L* value, free amino groups and SDS-PAGE pattern. Fewer larger proteins were found in WPC bars with SiO2, which indicated that the used anticaking agents diminished the formation of Maillard-induced protein aggregation. On the other hand, α-helix in whey proteins was continuously transferred into β-sheet during storage. This conformation transformation was restrained by SiO2 and Ca3(PO4)2, further confirming less protein aggregation formed by Maillard reactions. Therefore, the use of anticaking agents can inhibit Marllard reactions in high-protein nutrition bars, and is effective for controlling the bars’ hardening.