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Split application of silicon in cadmium (Cd) spiked alkaline soil plays a vital role in decreasing Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains
- Rehman, Muhammad Zia ur, Rizwan, Muhammad, Rauf, Arslan, Ayub, Muhammad Ashar, Ali, Shafaqat, Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq, Waris, Aisha A., Naeem, Asif, Sanaullah, Muhammad
- Chemosphere 2019 v.226 pp. 454-462
- Oryza sativa, alkaline soils, bioaccumulation factor, cadmium, developmental stages, food chain, food contamination, humans, panicles, photosynthesis, plant growth, rice, risk, silicon, split application, tillering, tissues
- Food contamination with cadmium (Cd) is a serious health threat to humans worldwide and Cd accumulation by rice is a major source of Cd entrance to the food chain. Silicon (Si) application decreases the Cd content in rice but the timing of Si application may need further investigation. The present study investigated the effect of split application of Si in the soil (600 kg/ha of Si) at different growth stages of rice on the growth and Cd accumulation by rice under Cd stress. Rice plants were grown in the presence and absence of Cd and Si was applied in the soil at different growth stages of rice under Cd stress. The results indicated that Cd stress alone reduced the growth and photosynthesis and increased the Cd content in different tissues and grains of rice. Silicon application improved the plant growth and reduced the Cd accumulation, translocation factor, and bioaccumulation factor in rice especially in grains, whereas the response of Si varied with the application of Si at different growth stages. The application of Si in three splits (transplanting (S1), tillering (S2), panicle initiation (S3)) was the best in improving growth and reducing Cd concentrations in plants compared to other combinations of Si application. Silicon application in three splits (S1+S2+S3) reduced the grain Cd concentrations below the threshold level (0.2 mg/kg) and reduced the Cd health risk index under the experimental conditions. Overall, split application of Si at three growth stages may function as remediator and diminishes Cd uptake into rice grains.