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Neochamaejasmin A extracted from Stellera chamaejasme L. induces apoptosis involving mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Sf9 cells

Ren, Yuanhang, Mu, Yangping, Yue, Ying, Jin, Hong, Tao, Ke, Hou, Taiping
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.157 pp. 169-177
Spodoptera frugiperda, Stellera chamaejasme, apoptosis, cell lines, cell viability, cytochrome c, cytotoxicity, dose response, enzymes, lipid peroxidation, membrane potential, mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species
To explore the toxicity mechanisms of neochamaejasmin A (NCA), extracted from Stellera chamaejasme L., we first evaluated its cytotoxicity on the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell line. The results confirmed that NCA inhibited Sf9 cell survival in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Then, intracellular biochemical assays showed that NCA induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by morphological changes and the activation of caspases-3/9. We also observed that NCA induced apoptosis via mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway by upregulating cytochrome c and proapoptotic protein (Bax) and downregulating the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and antiapoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Moreover, we found a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), accumulation of lipid peroxidation product and an inactivation of the antioxidant enzymes in treated cells. Additionally, the cleavage of PARP and G2/M arrest were also detected in Sf9 cells exposed to NCA. These findings provide critical information that NCA effectively induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells through mitochondrial pathways.