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Uncovering malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) action on Ca2+ signal transduction and investigating the effects of BAPTA-AM (a cell-permeant Ca2+ chelator) on protective responses in glial cells

Hsu, Shu-Shong, Jan, Chung-Ren, Liang, Wei-Zhe
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.157 pp. 152-160
Ca2-transporting ATPase, astrocytes, calcium, calcium channel blockers, calcium channels, calcium signaling, chelating agents, cytotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum, enzyme inhibition, glioblastoma, homeostasis, humans, malathion, models, phospholipase C, protective effect, protein kinase C, rats
Malathion, one of commonly used organophosphate insecticides, has a wide range of toxic actions in different models. However, the effect of this compound on Ca2+ homeostasis and its related cytotoxicity in glial cells is elusive. This study examined whether malathion evoked intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) rises and established the relationship between Ca2+ signaling and cytotoxicity in normal human astrocytes, rat astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells. The data show that malathion induced concentration-dependent [Ca2+]i rises in Gibco® Human Astrocytes (GHA cells), but not in DI TNC1 normal rat astrocytes and DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. In GHA cells, this Ca2+ signal response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca2+. In Ca2+-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished malathion-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Conversely, incubation with malathion abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 also blocked malathion-induced [Ca2+]i rises. In Ca2+-containing medium, malathion-induced [Ca2+]i rises was inhibited by store-operated Ca2+ channel blockers (2-APB, econazole or SKF96365) and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X. Malathion (5–25 μM) concentration-dependently caused cytotoxicity in GHA, DI TNC1 and DBTRG-05MG cells. This cytotoxic effect was partially prevented by prechelating cytosolic Ca2+ with BAPTA-AM (a selective Ca2+ chelator) only in GHA cells. Together, in GHA but not in DI TNC1 and DBTRG-05MG cells, malathion induced [Ca2+]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ entry via PKC-sensitive store-operated Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, malathion induced Ca2+-associated cytotoxicity, suggesting that Ca2+ chelating may have a protective effect on malathion-induced cytotoxicity in normal human astrocytes.