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Spatial and temporal trends of melamine and its derivatives in sediment from Lake Shihwa, South Korea
- Zhu, Hongkai, Lee, Sunggyu, Moon, Hyo-Bang, Kannan, Kurunthachalam
- Journal of hazardous materials 2019 v.373 pp. 671-677
- lakes, melamine, sediments, streams, wastewater treatment, South Korea
- Occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal trends of melamine and its derivatives (ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid) were investigated in surface sediment and two sediment cores collected from Lake Shihwa, South Korea. ∑Melamine (sum of melamine and its three derivatives) was found in all surface sediment samples at concentrations that ranged from 16.6 to 4390 ng/g dry weight (dw), with an average value of 202 ng/g dw. ∑Melamine concentrations exhibited a clear spatial gradient, in decreasing order, as: creeks (mean: 577 ng/g dw) > inshore locations (41.9 ng/g dw) > offshore locations (24.3 ng/g dw). ∑Melamine concentrations were notably high in sediment collected near wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls. Melamine was the most prevalent compound in sediment collected from creeks (87%) and WWTP outfall locations (48%), whereas cyanuric acid was the dominant compound in sediment from inshore (51%) and offshore (63%) locations. The historical profiles of ∑Melamine in sediment cores corresponded with coastal development and environmental changes in this region. This is the first study to document the occurrence and temporal distribution of melamine in sediment cores, and this information is useful in understanding the fate of these relatively less-studied chemicals in the environment.