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Non-enzymatic transformations of dietary 2-hydroxyalkenyl and aromatic glucosinolates in the stomach of monogastrics

Frandsen, Heidi B., Sørensen, Jens C., Jensen, Søren K., Markedal, Keld E., Joehnke, Marcel S., Maribo, Hanne, Sørensen, Susanne, Sørensen, Hilmer
Food chemistry 2019
glucosinolates, iron, nitriles, pH, rats, stomach, swine
Monogastric animals exhibit different biological responses to structurally diverse glucosinolates and their transformation products, depending on the dietary levels. The transformations of 2-hydroxyalkenyl and aromatic glucosinolates were examined in vitro under gastric conditions, ex vivo in ligated porcine stomachs and in vivo in a rat model.Intact glucosinolates were almost completely transformed in vitro within 1 h at pH 3 (73-88%) and at pH 5 (97-100%) upon addition of Fe2+ ranging from two–fold molar excess. Glucosinolate transformations reached 78-99% when incubated ex vivo in ligated porcine stomachs. Rat in vivo feeding trials showed major reductions (81-84%) in the intact glucosinolate contents upon passage through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.Non-enzymatic transformations of glucosinolates occur in the stomach, where pH and the level of Fe2+ are primary determinants. This is the first study to show a complex formation between iron-progoitrin and iron-sinalbin, facilitating the transformation into nitriles and thionamides.