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Non-enzymatic transformations of dietary 2-hydroxyalkenyl and aromatic glucosinolates in the stomach of monogastrics
- Frandsen, Heidi B., Sørensen, Jens C., Jensen, Søren K., Markedal, Keld E., Joehnke, Marcel S., Maribo, Hanne, Sørensen, Susanne, Sørensen, Hilmer
- Food chemistry 2019
- glucosinolates, iron, nitriles, pH, rats, stomach, swine
- Monogastric animals exhibit different biological responses to structurally diverse glucosinolates and their transformation products, depending on the dietary levels. The transformations of 2-hydroxyalkenyl and aromatic glucosinolates were examined in vitro under gastric conditions, ex vivo in ligated porcine stomachs and in vivo in a rat model.Intact glucosinolates were almost completely transformed in vitro within 1 h at pH 3 (73-88%) and at pH 5 (97-100%) upon addition of Fe2+ ranging from two–fold molar excess. Glucosinolate transformations reached 78-99% when incubated ex vivo in ligated porcine stomachs. Rat in vivo feeding trials showed major reductions (81-84%) in the intact glucosinolate contents upon passage through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.Non-enzymatic transformations of glucosinolates occur in the stomach, where pH and the level of Fe2+ are primary determinants. This is the first study to show a complex formation between iron-progoitrin and iron-sinalbin, facilitating the transformation into nitriles and thionamides.