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Evaluating the technological evolution of battery electric buses: China as a case
- Du, Jiuyu, Li, Feiqiang, Li, Jianqiu, Wu, Xiaogang, Song, Ziyou, Zou, Yunfei, Ouyang, Minggao
- Energy 2019 v.176 pp. 309-319
- batteries, fossil fuels, issues and policy, markets, models, transportation, China
- Battery electric buses (BEBs) are expected to play a vital role in a green transportation system for China. The Chinese government has dedicated substantial effort and resources to the mass penetration of BEBs, especially in the form of its large amount national fiscal subsidy. Under multiple incentive-based policies, the penetration of BEBs has increased rapidly to make China now rank first among the world's BEB markets. There are a number of unique characteristics in China's BEB industry, including complex product composition, unique technical features, strong policy sensitivity, and effective implementation of government policies. This study focuses on the interaction of these factors among market, technological improvements, and fiscal improvements. The research performed based on an analysis of a large number of actual BEB models and their operational data. More specifically, we analyzed the distribution characteristics of curb mass, top speed, driving power, all-electric range, and energy consumption. Additionally, we examined a technological roadmap for traction batteries and motors of different sizes of BEBs. Finally, the input and output of subsidy benefits associated with fossil oil replacement are examined, which indicate light-duty BEBs exhibit poor performance compared to heavy-duty models. All these results can be used to improve the new incentive polices for BEBs.