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Immunomodulatory molecules regulate adhesin gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus: Effect on bacterial internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells

Frutis-Murillo, Minerva, Sandoval-Carrillo, Marcelo Alejandro, Alva-Murillo, Nayeli, Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra, López-Meza, Joel E.
Microbial pathogenesis 2019 v.131 pp. 15-21
Staphylococcus aureus, adhesins, bacteria, bovine mastitis, cattle, cholecalciferol, epithelial cells, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, mammary glands, messenger RNA, octanoic acid, pathogens, phagocytes, sodium, sodium butyrate
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of subclinical bovine mastitis that usually is chronic and recurrent, which has been related to its ability to internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Previously, we reported that short and medium fatty acids and cholecalciferol reduce S. aureus internalization into pretreated-bMECs with these molecules suggesting a role as immunomodulatory agents. Hence, we assessed the role of sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium octanoate (NaO) and cholecalciferol on S. aureus adhesin expression and its internalization into bMECs. S. aureus pre-treated 2 h with 0.5 mM or 2 mM NaB showed a reduction in internalization into bMECs (∼35% and ∼55%; respectively), which coincided with a down-regulated expression of clumping factor B (ClfB). Also, the S. aureus internalization reduction by 2 mM NaB (2 h) agreed with a down-regulated expression of sdrC. Moreover, the 2 mM NaB (24 h) pre-treatment induced bacterial internalization (∼3-fold), which was related with an up-regulation of spa, clfB and sdrC genes. Also, NaO (0.25 mM and 1 mM) only reduced S. aureus internalization when bacteria were grown 2 h with this molecule but there was no relationship with adhesin expression. In addition, cholecalciferol (50 nM) reduced bacteria internalization at similar levels (∼50%) when bacteria were grown 2 and 24 h in broth supplemented with this compound, which correlated with spa and sdrC mRNA expression down-regulated at 2 h, and fnba and clfB mRNA expression decreased at 24 h. In conclusion, our data support the fact that fatty acids and cholecalciferol regulate adhesin gene expression as well as bacteria internalization in nonprofessional phagocytic cells, which may lead to development of anti-virulence agents for control of pathogens.