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Risk and performance assessment of cement made using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash as a cement kiln feed

Clavier, Kyle A., Watts, Benjamin, Liu, Yalan, Ferraro, Christopher C., Townsend, Timothy G.
Resources, conservation, and recycling 2019 v.146 pp. 270-279
X-ray diffraction, bottom ash, cement, compression strength, kilns, leachates, municipal solid waste, raw materials, risk, screening, waste incineration
To assess the feasibility of incorporating municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) as a replacement for traditional raw materials in cement kiln feed, an industrial-scale kiln trial was performed. Leach testing and chemical and physical characterization data from a cement product made at a replacement percentage of 2.8% by mass of kiln feed were comparable to results from ordinary portland cement. The concentrations of constituents of concern in leach tests were generally below risk-based screening levels or of similar or lower magnitude than leachate from control products. Ash-amended cement exhibited greater early age reactivity, and this was reflected in initial mortar compressive strength results; ultimate compressive strength results were higher in the control mortar. The ash-amended and control cements were similar in characteristic, but quantitative x-ray diffraction results reveal differences in alite and aluminate formation during the clinker formation process.