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Phenolic composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Seeds

Alonso-Esteban, José Ignacio, Pinela, José, Barros, Lillian, Ćirić, Ana, Soković, Marina, Calhelha, Ricardo C., Torija-Isasa, Esperanza, de Cortes Sánchez-Mata, María, Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Industrial crops and products 2019 v.134 pp. 154-159
Humulus lupulus, Penicillium, adenocarcinoma, antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, bacteria, beers, bitterness, breasts, brewing industry, cell lines, cytotoxicity, females, functional foods, fungi, hepatoma, inflorescences, liquid chromatography, lung neoplasms, neoplasm cells, odors, seed extracts, seeds, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, uterine cervical neoplasms
Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is a perennial climbing plant cultivated for commercial use, mainly in brewing industry, since the female inflorescences (cones) contain lupulin glands that confer the characteristic bitterness, aroma and flavour to beer. However, the bioactive potential of the seeds found in these cones remains unexplored. In this study, the phenolic composition of hop seeds was analysed by LC-DAD-ESI/MSn and its antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities were screened against oxidizable substrates, human tumour and non-tumour cell lines, and different bacteria and fungi, respectively. (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin were identified in the seeds, totalizing 17.6 ± 0.7 mg/g extract. The seed extract showed antioxidant activity mainly through the formation inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and had cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) tumour cells, but no toxicity towards the normal PLP2 cell line was observed. The extract showed remarkable antimicrobial properties, being better than the positive controls against almost all tested bacteria and fungi of the genus Penicillium. These results highlight the potential of hop seeds as a source of functional ingredients with applications in the food and pharmaceutical sectors.