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Gain-of-Function Mutations: An Emerging Advantage for Cancer Biology

Author:
Li, Yongsheng, Zhang, Yunpeng, Li, Xia, Yi, Song, Xu, Juan
Source:
Trends in biochemical sciences 2019 v.44 no.8 pp. 659-674
ISSN:
0968-0004
Subject:
gain-of-function mutation, genomics, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, loss-of-function mutation, neoplasms, phenotype, proteins, therapeutics
Abstract:
Advances in next-generation sequencing have identified thousands of genomic variants that perturb the normal functions of proteins, further contributing to diverse phenotypic consequences in cancer. Elucidating the functional pathways altered by loss-of-function (LOF) or gain-of-function (GOF) mutations will be crucial for prioritizing cancer-causing variants and their resultant therapeutic liabilities. In this review, we highlight the fundamental function of GOF mutations and discuss the potential mechanistic effects in the context of signaling networks. We also summarize advances in experimental and computational resources, which will dramatically help with studies on the functional and phenotypic consequences of mutations. Together, systematic investigations of the function of GOF mutations will provide an important missing piece for cancer biology and precision therapy.
Agid:
6359484