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Comprehensive Study of the Phenolic Compound Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Eight Pistachio Cultivars and Their Residual Cakes and Virgin Oils
- Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M., Salvador, María Desamparados, Fregapane, Giuseppe, Gómez-Alonso, Sergio
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.13 pp. 3583-3594
- Pistacia vera, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, cultivars, epigallocatechin, flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, high performance liquid chromatography, oils, oilseed cakes, pistachios, pressing, procyanidins, tandem mass spectrometry
- Phenolic compounds of eight pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars and their residual cakes and virgin oils (screw pressing) were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 25 compounds were identified and quantified for pistachio nuts and residual cakes, with the presence of five flavonols, six flavanols, and one gallotannin being reported for the first time. Total phenolics in pistachio nuts showed a concentration from 1359 mg/kg (Kastel) to 4507 mg/kg (Larnaka). Flavanols were the most abundant phenolics, at about 90%, with resulting procyanidin B1 and gallocatechin being the main phenolics, depending upon the cultivar. Other phenolic groups, such as anthocyanins (from 54 to 218 mg/kg), flavonols (from 76 to 130 mg/kg), flavanones (from 12 to 71 mg/kg), and gallotannins (from 4 to 46 mg/kg), were also identified. Residual cakes presented the same phenolic profile but with a concentration almost double because of the concentration effect caused by the oil separation. Virgin pistachio oils showed a very low phenolic content, with eriodyctiol being the only compound identified.