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Distinguishing between Bread Wheat and Spelt Grains Using Molecular Markers and Spectroscopy
- Curzon, A. Y., Chandrasekhar, K., Nashef, Y. K., Abbo, S., Bonfil, D. J., Reifen, R., Bar-el, S., Avneri, A., Ben-David, R.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.13 pp. 3837-3841
- Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta, bakery industry, diagnostic techniques, genes, genetic markers, genotyping, models, near-infrared spectroscopy, phenotype, seeds, wheat
- The increasing demand for spelt products requires the baking industry to develop accurate and efficient tools to differentiate between spelt and bread wheat grains. We subjected a 272-sample spelt-bread wheat set to several potential diagnostic methods. DNA markers for γ-gliadin-D (GAG56D), γ-gliadin-B (GAG56B), and the Q-gene were used, alongside phenotypic assessment of ease-of-threshing and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The GAG56B and GAG56D markers demonstrated low diagnostic power in comparison to the Q-gene genotyping, which showed full accordance with the threshing phenotype, providing a highly accurate distinction between bread wheat and spelt kernels. A highly reliable Q classification was based on a three-waveband NIR model [Kappa (0.97), R-square (0.93)], which suggested that this gene influences grain characteristics. Our data ruled out a protein concentration bias of the NIRS-based diagnosis. These findings highlight the Q gene and NIRS as important, valuable, but simple tools for distinguishing between bread wheat and spelt.