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Development and validation of a competitive ELISA based on bacterium-original virus-like particles of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus for detecting serum antibodies

Ran, Xuhua, Yang, Zhiyuan, Bai, Manyuan, Zhang, Yun, Wen, Xiaobo, Guo, Huichen, Sun, Shiqi
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2019 v.103 no.7 pp. 3015-3024
Foot-and-mouth disease virus, animals, antibodies, antigens, biosafety, blood serum, developing countries, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, financial economics, foot-and-mouth disease, herd immunity, livestock and meat industry, manufacturing, serotypes, vaccination, virus-like particles
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects all susceptible cloven-hoofed animals, resulting in considerable economic losses to animal industries worldwide. Numerous categories of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) have been developed and widely used to evaluate herd immunity. Manufacturing inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) as a diagnostic antigen requires a facility with a high level of biosafety, but this requirement raises concern on viral leakage. In our previous study, bacterium-original FMD virus-like particles (VLPs) resemble the authentic FMDV and induce protective immunity against homologous viral challenges, thereby demonstrating that they are sufficiently safe without limitations on biosafety facilities and easily prepared. Herein, we developed a competitive ELISA (cELISA) based on FMDV-VLPs as a diagnostic antigen to evaluate herd immunity. The criterion of this cELISA was determined by detecting panels of positive sera with different antibody titers and negative sera. The working parameter of cELISA was optimized, and samples with a percentage inhibition of ≥ 50% were considered positive. The specificity of cELISA to test 277 serum samples with various antibody titers was 100%, and the sensitivity reached 96%. The coincidence rates of cELISA with a VDPro® FMDV and a PrioCHECK® FMDV type O antibody ELISA kit were 97.8% and 98.2%, respectively. Repeatability tests demonstrated that the coefficients of variation within and between runs were less than 7% and 14%, respectively. Our data demonstrated that cELISA based on bacterium-original VLPs had high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. The cELISA could also be used for evaluating vaccination herd immunity effects, especially in developing countries.