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Distribution of Oenococcus oeni populations in natural habitats

Lorentzen, Marc P. G., Lucas, Patrick M.
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2019 v.103 no.7 pp. 2937-2945
Oenococcus oeni, alcoholic fermentation, apple cider, genomics, habitats, kombucha, lactic acid bacteria, malolactic fermentation, phylogeny, population structure, species diversity, wines
Oenococcus oeni is the lactic acid bacteria species most commonly encountered in wine, where it develops after the alcoholic fermentation and achieves the malolactic fermentation that is needed to improve the quality of most wines. O. oeni is abundant in the oenological environment as well as in apple cider and kombucha, whereas it is a minor species in the natural environment. Numerous studies have shown that there is a great diversity of strains in each wine region and in each product or type of wine. Recently, genomic studies have shed new light on the species diversity, population structure, and environmental distribution. They revealed that O. oeni has unique genomic features that have contributed to its fast evolution and adaptation to the enological environment. They have also unveiled the phylogenetic diversity and genomic properties of strains that develop in different regions or different products. This review explores the distribution of O. oeni and the diversity of strains in natural habitats.