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Toxicological impact of oxyfluorfen 24% herbicide on the reproductive system, antioxidant enzymes, and endocrine disruption of Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg, 1831) snails
- Ibrahim, Amina Mohamed, Sayed, Dawlat A.
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.8 pp. 7960-7968
- Biomphalaria alexandrina, adults, aquatic environment, catalase, connective tissues, eggs, estradiol, fecundity, glutathione transferase, hermaphroditism, histopathology, lethal concentration 50, lipid peroxides, malondialdehyde, molluscicidal properties, oxyfluorfen, pollution, reproductive system, snails, superoxide dismutase, survival rate, testosterone, weed control
- Oxyfluorfen (Goal 24%EC) herbicide is widely used in agriculture for weed control. Biomphalaria alexandrina snails can be used as bioindicator of the chemical pollution in the aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of this herbicide on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and how it affected its biological system. The present study revealed a molluscicidal effect of oxyfluorfen 24%EC on these snails at LC₅₀ 5.9 mg/l. After exposure of snails to the sub-lethal concentrations (LC₀, LC₁₀, or LC₂₅) of this herbicide, the survival rates, reproductive rate (R₀), and fecundity (Mₓ) of adult B. alexandrina snails were significantly decreased in comparison with the control group. Also, levels of testosterone and estradiol were decreased significantly. It caused alterations in the antioxidant system, where exposure to sub-lethal concentration of this herbicide caused significant increases in levels of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), while it significantly decreased glutathione transferase (GST). Histopathological changes in the digestive gland included severe damage in the digestive cells, where, they lost their tips and some were degenerated, while the secretory cells increased in number. Regarding the hermaphrodite gland, there were losses of the connective tissues, irregular sperms, and the eggs degenerated. These findings concluded that B. alexandrina snails can be used as a bioindicator for pollution with pesticide in the aquatic environment.