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Comparative toxicities of 10 widely used biocides in three freshwater invertebrate species

Li, Mei-Hui
Chemistry in ecology 2019 v.35 no.5 pp. 472-482
Daphnia similis, Dugesia, azoxystrobin, biocides, clotrimazole, cosmetics, freshwater, lethal concentration 50, pyraclostrobin, shrimp, surface water, toxicity, triclosan, wastewater
Owing to their widespread use in wooden products, industrial products, cosmetics, and personal care products, biocides are frequently detected in wastewater and surface water. In this study, I examined the acute toxicities of 10 commonly used biocides, namely methylisothiazolinone, benzisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone, dichlorooctylisothiazolinone, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, triclosan, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, climbazole, and clotrimazole, in the water flea (Daphnia similis), freshwater planarians (Dugesia japonica) and green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). Among the 10 tested biocides, dichlorooctylisothiazolinone was the most toxic to both D. similis and N. denticulata, whereas pracolstrobin was the most toxic to Du. japonica. By contrast, the least toxic biocides for D. similis, Du. japonica, and N. denticulata were climbazole, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, and methylisothiazolinone, respectively. The 48-h nominal LC₅₀ values of all the biocides, except for benzisothiazolinone and climbazole, in D. similis were mostly less than 1 mg/L. In addition, the 96-h nominal LC₅₀ values of all the biocides, except for methylisothiazolinone and iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, in Du. japonica was less than 1 mg/L. These results indicate the biocides with low LC₅₀ values are relatively toxic to freshwater organisms.