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Common frogs response to agrochemicals contamination in coffee plantations, Western Ghats, India

Hegde, Ganapati, Krishnamurthy, S. V., Berger, Gert
Chemistry in ecology 2019 v.35 no.5 pp. 397-407
acetylcholinesterase, agrochemicals, biomarkers, brain, crops, enzyme activity, farmers, females, frogs, gonadosomatic index, health status, hepatosomatic index, liver, males, mineral fertilizers, nontarget organisms, pesticides, plantations, tissues, India
This study highlights the health status of frogs in coffee plantations of Western Ghats. Coffee is one of the major commercial crops in the Western Ghats of India. In these plantations, farmers extensively use agrochemicals including pesticides and synthetic fertilisers. The practice of agrochemical usage can negatively affect non-target organisms like amphibians. The area has reported many amphibian species living in and around plantations. A total of 334 frogs from reference sites (10 abnormal frogs) and a total of 258 frogs (19 abnormal frogs) were collected from contaminated sites. We considered major biomarkers like hepato-somatic index, gonado-somatic index, morphological abnormalities and acetylcholinestarse activities for evaluating the health status of frogs. In our study, the hepato-somatic index and gonado-somatic index were found to be higher in a grochemical contaminated sites. Whereas, acetycholine esterase activity in brain and liver tissues of frogs in contaminated sites were low compared to reference sites. High rate of incidence of morphological abnormality (7.36%), increased hepato-somatic index (14.86%) and gonado-somatic index (male; 8.88% and female; 17.51%) and low acetylcholine esterase activities in brain (41.5%) and liver (46.9%) indicates the lower health status of frogs living in coffee plantations that are regularly treated with agrochemicals.